In Gramadach By Alexander

Am Present Perfect Continuous: rialacha agus samplaí úsáide

Nuair a thosaíonn muid chun Béarla a fhoghlaim, is cosúil go bhfuil an níos faide an t-am, an t-ainm Béarla, an níos deacra tá sé chun cuimhneamh ar a chuid oideachais agus tuiscint a fháil ar an fheidhm teanga. Ach nuair a bheidh tú a bheith aige ar an chuid is mó den am sa Bhéarla, beidh tú a thuiscint go, ag gcodarsnacht leis sin, tá na laethanta le hainmneacha fada cúpla feidhmeanna, agus tá a n-úsáid ag brath go láidir ar an gcomhthéacs.


Cad é an Present Perfect Continuous Is é seo ach ceann amháin de na huaire, a bhfuil ach dhá gnéithe i mBéarla. Ach ar dtús, a ligean ar labhairt faoi a chuid oideachais. Agus a thuiscint cad é san am an-simplí. Ón teideal is léir go mbeidh an am seo a bheith rud éigin den ghrúpa Perfect agus rud éigin ó ghrúpa de Continuous Cuimhnigh na prionsabail a bhaineann le foirmiú na hamanna na grúpaí seo agus iarracht a dhéanamh a shamhlú conas is cosúil am Present Perfect Continuous An chuid is mó de na mic léinn seo a fhreagairt i gceart ar fhreagairt an gcéad iarracht.

Oideachas Present Perfect Continuous, abairtí mar shampla

Gcéad dul síos, a ligean ar a fháil amach conas foirmeacha Present Perfect Continuous

Seo aimsir atá déanta ag baint úsáide as an mbriathar cúnta to be in am Present Perfect . E. Tá briathar cúnta an fhoirm have been / has been (don phearsa uatha tríú duine — he she it Chuir sé cúnta rangabháil láthair briathar déanta as an bhrí a briathar (ie E. infinitive verb + an deireadh -. ing Seo ar fad é mar a leanas:

I have been waiting for you for two hours. – uair an chloig. I have been waiting for you for two hours. – I have been waiting for you for two hours. – Tá mé ag fanacht leat ar feadh dhá uair an chloig.

An Present Perfect Continuous abairtí ceisteacha atá déanta an-simplí: a chur ar an chéad chuid den bhriathar cúnta have i dtús na habairte:

Have you been waiting for me for two hours? – uair an chloig? Have you been waiting for me for two hours? – Have you been waiting for me for two hours? – Tá tú ag súil dom dhá uair an chloig?

Tá foirm dhiúltach chur ar phíosa not tar éis an chéad chuid den bhriathar cúnta have

I have not been waiting for you for two hours. – dhá uair an chloig. I have not been waiting for you for two hours. – I have not been waiting for you for two hours. – Níl mé ag fanacht leat ar feadh dhá uair an chloig.

Mar a úsáidtear Giorrúcháin na foirmeacha seo a leanas:

  • I ‘ve been waiting…
  • He ‘s been waiting…
  • We haven’t been waiting…
  • She hasn’t been waiting…
  • Haven’t you been waiting?..
  • Hasn’t he been waiting?..

Nuair a úsáidtear Present Perfect Continuous

Mar a luadh cheana, Present Perfect Continuous Tá dhá fheidhm an-éagsúil. Ach chéile dóibh go bhfuil ag an am seo, ar bhealach a tharchuirfear gníomh fada.

Nuair a bheidh ag baint úsáide as an Present Perfect Continuous

  1. Present Perfect Continuous úsáidtear chun caingean a thosaigh san am atá caite a tharchur, mhair sé ar feadh tamaill agus leanann a bheidh le déanamh i láthair. Seo a samplaí clasaiceach cúpla:

    She has been cooking dinner for three hours already. – cheana féin. She has been cooking dinner for three hours already. – She has been cooking dinner for three hours already. – Cócairí sí dinnéar ar feadh trí uair an chloig. (go léir agus a bhí sí cócaireacht, agus nach bhfuil críochnaithe go fóill, ar aghaidh ag cócaireacht)

    I have been reading this book since the beginning of summer. – thús an tsamhraidh. I have been reading this book since the beginning of summer. – I have been reading this book since the beginning of summer. – Léigh mé an leabhar seo ó thús an tsamhraidh. (Léigh mé cuid éigin, ach ní críochnaithe go fóill, léamh a choinneáil)

    We have been staying in this hotel nearly a month. – in aghaidh na míosa. We have been staying in this hotel nearly a month. – We have been staying in this hotel nearly a month. – Tá cónaí orainn i óstán ar feadh beagnach in aghaidh na míosa. (cuid de mhí a bhfuil cónaí agus leanúint ar aghaidh chun cónaí)

    Nuair a bhíonn an t-am a úsáidtear sa fheidhm seo, tagraíonn an briathar don am i láthair agus tá an t-aistriúchán is iomchuí: cócaireacht, léitheoireacht, beo.

    De ghnáth, léiríonn an abairt i gcónaí an t-am nuair a bhíonn an ngníomh a dhéantar, ach gan de thréimhse ama soiléir. Dar leis an príomh-am-chomharthaí atá for since lately recently chomh maith leis an gcineál a nochtadh gan réamhfhocail quite a while these three days etc. Ceisteanna ina bhfuil Present Perfect Continuous tús a ghnáth le léiriú how long agus since when

    How long has she been dating with your brother? – dheartháir? How long has she been dating with your brother? – How long has she been dating with your brother? – Cén fhad a mhairfidh go gcomhlíonann sé le do dheartháir?

    Since when have you been starring in films? – C Since when have you been starring in films? – C nuair raibh tú ag gníomhú i scannáin?

    Tabhair faoi deara gur in abairtí casta leis an aontas since sa chlásal fo úsáidtear le linn Past Simple toisc go léiríonn sé gníomh nithiúil san am atá caite, a thosaigh an gníomh ar an clásal is mó:

    He has been sitting in the living-room since he came. – ó tháinig sé. He has been sitting in the living-room since he came. – He has been sitting in the living-room since he came. – Tá sé ag suí sa seomra suí ó tháinig sé.

    Mar gheall ar an bhfíric go bhfuil an t-am Present Perfect Continuous fios go fada dtarlaíonn an ghníomhaíocht ar siúl i bhfíor-am, chomh maith leis an bhfíric go bhfuil an gníomh taithí ag an cainteoir, mar a tharla arís agus arís eile san am atá caite agus leanann sé tarlú anois, tá an t-am go minic ar dhaoine eatarthu le Present Continuous agus Present Simple Ach a roghnú an am ceart, ní bheidh ort a bheith deacair más cuimhin leat go bhfuil an Present Perfect Continuous atá i gcónaí a ghabh léiriú ar an am nuair a tharlaíonn caingean (nó go bhfuil sé comhthéacs intuigthe), agus i gcás an Present Continuous agus Present Simple am na gníomhaíochta nach bhfuil in iúl i gcónaí. Smaoinigh ar na samplaí is simplí:

    I have been reading this magazine since I bought it a week ago. – cheannaigh sé in aghaidh na seachtaine ó shin. I have been reading this magazine since I bought it a week ago. – I have been reading this magazine since I bought it a week ago. – Léigh mé an iris ó cheannaigh mé é in aghaidh na seachtaine ó shin. (anois mar chuid den léamh, léitheoireacht a choinneáil)

    I am reading this magazine. – I am reading this magazine. – Léigh mé an iris. (i láthair na huaire suí mé agus a léamh)

    I have been living in England for the last eight years. – hocht mbliana anuas. I have been living in England for the last eight years. – I have been living in England for the last eight years. – Tá cónaí orm i Sasana na hocht mbliana anuas. (Ar athraíodh a ionad mé ocht mbliana ó shin agus atá fós ina gcónaí)

    I live in England. – I live in England. – Tá cónaí orm i Sasana. (ní ábhar é, nuair a bhí mé ann, ina gcónaí ann go buan)

  2. Am Present Perfect Continuous a úsáidtear chun pas a gníomh fada san am atá caite, a chríochnaigh díreach roimh an óráid, agus tá tionchar aige sin ar an láthair mar thoradh ar an ngníomh. Mar shampla:

    The streets are wet. It has been raining all the morning. – The streets are wet. It has been raining all the morning. – Is é an tsráid fliuch. Ba é an mhaidin ar fad bháisteach.

    Aistríonn an fheidhm an briathar gníomh san am atá caite, mar sin, aistriú go Rúisis Beidh a úsáid ag an briathar san aimsir chaite.

    She looks very sad. What have you been saying to her? – She looks very sad. What have you been saying to her? – Féachann sí brónach. Cad a dhéanann tú uttered é?

    We are very tired because we have been walking in the mountains since early morning. – ag siúl sna sléibhte ó go luath ar maidin. We are very tired because we have been walking in the mountains since early morning. – We are very tired because we have been walking in the mountains since early morning. – Tá muid an-tuirseach, mar a bhí ag siúl sna sléibhte maidin go luath.

    Sa cháil sin di, ní féidir leis an táscaire am a úsáid:

    Look at you! What have you been doing? – Look at you! What have you been doing? – Féach ar tú! Cad atá ar siúl agat?

    Am Present Perfect Continuous mar riail, tá nach n-úsáidtear le briathra de stáit. Sa chás seo, a úsáid in ionad an t-am Present Perfect

    I have loved him since we first met. – I have loved him since we first met. – Is breá liom é lenár gcéad chruinniú.

    We’ve known each other for two years already. – cheana féin. We’ve known each other for two years already. – We’ve known each other for two years already. – Tá a fhios againn ar a chéile ar feadh dhá bhliain.

    Mar sin féin, tá eisceachtaí:

    Thank god, you are here! I’ve been wanting to talk to you! – Thank god, you are here! I’ve been wanting to talk to you! – Go raibh maith Dia tá tú anseo! Bhí mé i ndáiríre a labhairt leat.

    We’ve been needing this money since we got married and we know how to spend it. – fuair pósta agus tá a fhios againn conas a chaitheamh air. We’ve been needing this money since we got married and we know how to spend it. – We’ve been needing this money since we got married and we know how to spend it. – Is gá againn an t-airgead ó fuair muid pósta, agus tá a fhios againn cad a chaitheamh air.

Seo go léir is gá duit ar an eolas faoi am Present Perfect Continuous Nach bhfuil sé casta, níl ach dhá ghné sa chaint agus i bhformhór na gcásanna a úsáidtear sa teanga leis an táscaire am.

Tá an topaic seo a bhaineann go dlúth leis an duine eile mar a thuairiscítear sna hairteagail gur gá aird a íoc:

  • «Faoi láthair, an Béarla»
  • «Am Present Simple
  • «Am Present Continuous
  • «Am Present Perfect ( Am Foirfe)»

Tar éis a léamh iad, molaimid a pas a fháil sa tástáil seo a leanas: «amanna grúpa tástála Present

 

Gramadach

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