In Gramadach By Helena

An difríocht idir na focail, besides, except agus apart from

Word besides except agus apart from úsáid go minic ar dhaoine eatarthu agus mícheart, toisc go bhfuil siad go léir Rúisis aistriú mar «ach». Armtha leis an t-eolas luachmhar, ní mór dúinn a smaoineamh i ndáiríre faoi an focal «ach» is féidir a ghlacadh luachanna dearfacha agus diúltacha. Tar éis athbhreithniú a an t-ábhar san Airteagal seo, ag féachaint ar na rialacha agus na samplaí, beidh tú ag foghlaim conas é a focail a úsáid besides except agus apart from ina óráid.


  1. Besides — focal leis an «móide» rud a chiallaíonn de ghnáth «ina theannta sin a thuilleadh óna chéile.»

    Besides Russian, he can speak English and French. — Fraincis. Besides Russian, he can speak English and French. — Besides Russian, he can speak English and French. — Chomh maith le / i dteannta Rúisis, a fhios aige conas a labhairt Béarla agus Fraincis.

    Dá bhrí sin, labhraíonn sé trí theanga. Besides léiriú go bhfuil an teanga Rúise san áireamh i liosta na dteangacha, atá ar úinéireacht aige.

    Besides Tom and Jane, I invited eight people to the party. — daoine don pháirtí. Besides Tom and Jane, I invited eight people to the party. — Besides Tom and Jane, I invited eight people to the party. — Chomh maith le Tom agus Jane, cuireadh mé ochtar daoine don pháirtí.

    Dála an scéil besides is féidir linn a chinneadh go dtugtar cuireadh Tom agus Jane freisin.

    Ina theannta sin, besides féidir é a úsáid nuair is gá béim a chur chun béim a pointe éigin nó a chur rud éigin tábhachtach.

    He is not a responsible worker. Besides, he is always late! — He is not a responsible worker. Besides, he is always late! — Níl sé oibrí an-freagrach. Thairis / ina theannta sin, tá sé i gcónaí go déanach!

    Sa dara habairt bhfuil an fhaisnéis a gcreideann an cainteoir breisiú tábhachtach an ráiteas roimhe sin.

  2. Except — an focal seo leis an comhartha «lúide». Ní fholaíonn an focal ar an mír ón liosta. Except is féidir leat aistriúchán «an eisceacht, nach n-áirítear an».

    We visited all European countries except (for) Germany. — an Ghearmáin. We visited all European countries except (for) Germany. — We visited all European countries except (for) Germany. — Thugamar cuairt na tíortha na hEorpa, ach amháin i gcás / moite na Gearmáine.

    Ar mhodh except is léir nach bhfuil an Ghearmáin san áireamh i liosta na dtíortha a raibh ar ár gcumas chun cuairt a thabhairt.

    I invited eight people to the party except (for) Tom and Jane. — (do) Tom agus Jane. I invited eight people to the party except (for) Tom and Jane. — I invited eight people to the party except (for) Tom and Jane. — Tá mé cuireadh chuig cóisir de ocht, cé is moite de Tom agus Jane.

    Except eisiamh Tom agus Jane ó liosta na n-aíonna.

    He can speak many languages except Chinese. — He can speak many languages except Chinese. — Is féidir sé labhairt a lán teangacha, ach amháin na Síne.

    Tabhair faoi deara gur i roinnt cásanna except a úsáidtear an focal for

    Bainimid úsáid as except for

    • Cá háit ar chóir é a bheith ina ainmfhocal nó ainmfhocal frása ina bhfuil ainmfhocal:

      The yard was empty except for the small dog. – madra. The yard was empty except for the small dog. – The yard was empty except for the small dog. – I gclós ní raibh aon duine, seachas madra beag.

      The children were listening to the teacher except for the boys. – do na buachaillí. The children were listening to the teacher except for the boys. – The children were listening to the teacher except for the boys. – Na páistí éisteacht leis an múinteoir, ach amháin i gcás bhuachaillí.

    • Nuair a focail ar nós all any every everything everybody no nothing nobody whole agus a gcuid díorthach for minic overlooked (ach is féidir é a úsáid uaireanta más rud é, tar éis an nuashonrú):

      I have told everybody except (for) John, who can’t keep secrets. – John, ní féidir leo a rúin a choimeád. I have told everybody except (for) John, who can’t keep secrets. – I have told everybody except (for) John, who can’t keep secrets. – Dúirt mé gach duine, ach amháin John, nach bhfuil a fhios conas a rúin a choimeád.

      Nothing will change except (for) your salary. — thuarastal. Nothing will change except (for) your salary. — Nothing will change except (for) your salary. — Beidh Ní dhéanfaidh aon ní a athrú ach amháin do thuarastal.

    • Mar sin féin, más rud é cuid den fhocal except seastáin ag tús an togra, for — cinnte, agus an chuid seo den togra scartha le camóg:

      Except for John, I have told everybody.

      Except for your salary, nothing will change.

    • Sula réamhfhocail agus conjunctions atá leagtha ach amháin except

      I can sleep everywhere except on a bus. – I can sleep everywhere except on a bus. – Is féidir liom codladh in áit ar bith, ach ní ar an mbus.

      She is very polite except when she is angry. — feargach. She is very polite except when she is angry. — She is very polite except when she is angry. — Tá sí an-dea-bhéasach, ach amháin nuair a bhíonn sí feargach.

      He couldn’t find any other job except as a refuse collector. — mar bhailitheoir dramhaíola. He couldn’t find any other job except as a refuse collector. — He couldn’t find any other job except as a refuse collector. — Ní fhéadfadh sé a aimsiú obair eile, ach ag obair scavenger.

    • Cuimhnigh go bhfuil tar éis an except for úsáidimid forainmneacha pearsanta sa chás oibiachtúil: me him her us them you agus it fós gan athrú):

      Everybody knew about the latest news except (for) me. — dom. Everybody knew about the latest news except (for) me. — Everybody knew about the latest news except (for) me. — Tá gach eolas faoi an nuacht is déanaí, ach amháin i gcás dom.

      All participants arrived except (for) him. – All participants arrived except (for) him. – Tháinig Gach na rannpháirtithe, ach amháin i gcás dó.

      We all are ready except (for) you. – shon. We all are ready except (for) you. – We all are ready except (for) you. – Táimid go léir réidh, ach tú.

  3. Apart from féidir a úsáid sa dá céadfaí: cuimsiú agus eisiamh.

    Apart from Russian, he can speak English and French. (apart from = besides)

    We visited all European countries apart from Germany. (apart from = except)

    Is féidir leat a iarraidh: conas idirdhealú a dhéanamh idir an méid luach úsáidtear apart from Difriúil againn ach i gcomhthéacs.

  4. Coinnigh i gcuimhne gur tar éis na bhfocal no nobody nothing agus focail den chineál céanna le luach diúltach, is féidir leat úsáid a bhaint as aon cheann de na trí fhocal besides / except / apart from

    My brother has nothing to do besides / except / apart from watching TV. — The only thing my brother does is watching TV.

    She can play no musical instruments besides / except / apart from the piano. – The only musical instrument she can play is the piano.

    I have nobody to rely on besides / except / apart from my best friend. – The only person I can rely on is my best friend.

Rinneamar athbhreithniú ar an úsáid is minice de na focail besides except apart from ach ná déan dearmad, is féidir iad a úsáid i luachanna eile, a bheith áiteanna éagsúla cainte (mar shampla, except is féidir gníomhú mar briathar (a eisiamh, chun agóid, aigne), agus na focail besides agus apart d’fhéadfadh a bheith adverbs).

Chun eolas seo a áirithiú, beimid ag iarraidh oraibh chun pas a fháil i scrúdú beag.
Cuir isteach tairiscint besidesexcept for

 

Gramadach

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