In Gramadach By Victoria

Ceardchumainn i mBéarla

Ag déanamh staidéir ar ghramadach Béarla, táimid a tugadh isteach a scaradh notional parts of the speech agus seirbhís functional parts of the speech codanna cainte. An chéad is eol a bheith acu luach neamhspleách, agus féadfaidh sé róil comhréire éagsúla san abairt. Ach tá an dara ceann aon luach neamhspleách, ach amháin ceangal focail agus abairtí, uaireanta a fheabhsú nó a shainmhíniú luachanna focail eile. De réir na ceardchumainn oifigiúla codanna cainte, réamhfhocail, cáithníní, interjections, briathra modha agus exclamations. Dúirt an chéad chuid cúnta cainte, is é sin an aontas conjunction agus is ábhar ár plé san Airteagal seo.


Cad é an «ceardchumann» i mBéarla?

Amhail adubhramar, tá sé seo le seirbhís an chaint, rud a chabhraíonn a tharraingt ar an nasc idir na codanna d’abairt casta, idir na tograí aonair sa téacs, chomh maith le idir focail, mar chuid de phianbhreith simplí. Má labhraíonn muid an bhfoirm ceardchumainn i mBéarla, tugtar faoi deara gur sa chás seo, d’fhéadfadh siad a bheith simplí, casta, cumaisc. Judging ag na hainmneacha le fios go bhfuil an simplí simple Is focal amháin and but or casta compound in iúl trí mheán dhá ceardchumainn shimplí wherever howerer agus ilchodach composite atá ceaptha mar mheascán de sheirbhís agus suntasach focail as well as in order that

Má tá muid ag caint faoi na feidhmeanna a chomhlíonann cumainn i mBéarla, le do thoil gur féidir le gach ceardchumainn atá ann cheana a roinnt ina dhá ghrúpa: coordinative coordinating agus fo subordinating An Chéad is gá a nascadh leis an éide na pianbhreithe nó díreach cuid den togra slozhnosochinennogo neamhspleách. Subordinating na ceardchumainn i mBéarla a úsáidtear le nascadh leis na tograí subordinating mó mar chuid de choimpléasc.

Ina dhiaidh sin, ag smaoineamh ar an t-aicmiú níos mionsonraithe ceardchumainn sa Bhéarla, is féidir linn a fheiceáil go bhfuil na ceardchumainn coordinative:

  • Nascadh / copulative and as well as both…and eile)

    It was all dark overhead and in front of her there was a long passage. ( di go raibh pasáiste fada. It was all dark overhead and in front of her there was a long passage. ( It was all dark overhead and in front of her there was a long passage. ( — i bhrí atá le «agus»)

    Both Tom and Ann were late.

    He neither wrote nor phoned.

  • adversative / adversative and but yet however agus daoine eile)

    Henry lived in a small town, but then he got a job in a big city and moved there with his wife.

    The waters of the sea were deep, yet clear.

  • Isolating / disjunctive or eitheror

    He was not quick either of vision or conception.

    Be polite or you’ll miss your chance!

  • cúiseach a lua / causative-consecutive for so

    She missed the plane for her car broke down.

conjunctions subordinating i mBéarla níos éagsúla, agus dá bhrí sin na haicmithe siad faoi dhó. Is iad na grúpaí is mó de conjunctions subordinating i mBéarla:

  • izjasnitelnyh that whether if

    He suggested that we should give him the time to think over the problem. (that – t-am chun smaoineamh níos mó ar an bhfadhb. He suggested that we should give him the time to think over the problem. (that – He suggested that we should give him the time to think over the problem. (that – go go)

    I do not care whether she comes to the party or not.

  • am when as soon as till before while agus daoine eile)

    Dinner will be served at 7.30 after the guests arrive.

    What have you been doing since you were fired from work?

  • chúise as because since etc.)

    Farmers must rise early since they have so much work to do. (since – lán oibre le déanamh. Farmers must rise early since they have so much work to do. (since – Farmers must rise early since they have so much work to do. (since – mar gheall, mar a)

    The government requires warnings on cigarettes because smoking isn’t good for your health.

  • sprioc in order that so that eile)

    I will lend you my car so that you fill it up with petrol.

    He put on his glasses in order that he could see better.

  • coinníollach if unless provided / providing that supposing once agus daoine eile)

    Please, come by my house if you get a chance.

    She’d be very attractive provided that she lost all that weight.

  • concessive though although

    He was gay though tired.

    We still went to the beach although the sun wasn’t shining.

  • agus i gcomparáid leis an modus operandi as if, so…as as…as than the…the eile)

    He shook his head a bit as if in wonder that he had permitted himself this behaviour.

    The more I think about it the more nervous I become.

  • imscrúdú so…that that

    She arrived early so that she could help me prepare the meal.

    The film was so boring that I felt asleep.

Ní ceardchumainn i mBéarla an méid sin, agus is féidir leat iad go léir a fhoghlaim. Ceann de na bealaí is fearr chun cuimhneamh orthu, i mo thuairim, is é an tuairim leanúnach ar an tábla leis na ceardchumainn i mBéarla. Is féidir an tábla seo a dhéanamh do chuid féin trí scríobh i gcolún léir na ceardchumainn, iad a roinnt i ngrúpaí, mar aon le fáil dóibh le aistriúchán agus úsáid abairt samplaí. Nó is féidir leat é a úsáid réidh-déanta ábhar, atá tiomanta do na ceardchumainn i mBéarla. Mar shampla, as an leabhar ag G. Epstein «leithscéal. Ceardchumainn. Díorthú «(St Petersburg, a fhoilsiú» Karo «, 2001) nó liúntais Structured tasks for English practice Gallaucet College

Tá an topaic seo a bhaineann go dlúth leis an duine eile mar a thuairiscítear sna hairteagail gur gá aird a íoc:

  • Like agus as i mBéarla»
  • «Conjunctions coordinative i mBéarla»
  • «Conjunctions i mBéarla subordinating»

Tar éis a léamh iad, molaimid a pas a fháil sa tástáil seo a leanas: «. Déanfar an tástáil do chomhair in úsáid na habairte Béarla»

 

Gramadach

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