In Gramadach By Catherine

Inbhéartú i mBéarla

Gcéad dul síos, a ligean ar thabhairt chun cuimhne cad a léiríonn sé an bhfeiniméan seo: an inbhéartach — sárú ar an ordú is gnách ar an bhfocal in abairt. Tá a fhios againn go bhfuil Béarla ina theanga le ord na bhfocal seasta (preideacáid a leanas i gcónaí ar an ábhar), ach chun béim focal nó frása faoi leith, nó eile a thabhairt fuaim níos mhothúchánach an togra, is féidir linn a athrú an t-ordú is gnách ar an bhfocal. Chomh maith leis sin, táimid ag tabhairt aghaidhe inbhéartú, ag athrú an t-ordú de na focail i dtógáil na ceiste. Ar ndóigh, mar atá in aon alt eile den ghramadach Béarla, beidh rialacha agus eisceachtaí, a ligean ar iarracht chun déileáil leo.


  1. Ceisteanna.

    Mar a luadh thuas, na saincheisteanna athraímid an t-ordú de na focail, tá an feiniméan ar a dtugtar inbhéartú.

    Have you done your homework?

    Where is her house?

    Ba chóir a mheabhrú freisin nach bhfuil i gcúrsaí ord na bhfocal indíreach violated, ie aon inbhéartú.

    I would like to know what time the train arrives. ( thagann traein. I would like to know what time the train arrives. ( I would like to know what time the train arrives. ( NOT … what time does the train arrive)

    Uaireanta cheadaítear mar sin féin úsáid a bhaint as inbhéartú i gceisteanna indíreach i ndiaidh na cainte how má tá an ábhar in iúl i roinnt focal. Is é an ceann is coitianta is féidir leis an úsáid a bhaint as inbhéartú le fáil i an focal scríofa.

    I would like to know how important was the question I had been asked.

  2. An focal may

    Ar mhianta may seasamh os comhair an ábhar.

    May all your dreams come true.

  3. Clásail Coinníollach.

    Ceadaíonn stíl níos foirmiúla agus liteartha an úsáid a bhaint inbhéartú i gclásail fo coinníollach. Féadfaidh an briathar cúnta ar siúl roimh an ábhar; if mbeidh i gcásanna den sórt sin a fhágáil ar lár.

    Were she my sister … (= if she were my sister…)

    Had I known your intentions … (= if I had known your intentions)

    Ach ba chóir duit a bheith cúramach ag baint úsáide as an inbhéartach tograí den sórt sin, mar Níl nuair a úsáid teicníc seo i denial a cheadaítear chun laghdú ar an bhfoirm diúltach ar an bhriathar.

    Had we not lost all our money … ( NOT Hadn’t we lost …)

  4. Tar éis as than

    I stíl níos liteartha de inbhéartú a úsáidtear uaireanta i dtograí comparáideach leis na ceardchumainn thuas.

    He was very active, as were most boys of his age.

    Country people live longer than do city dwellers.

    Ach caithfidh tú cuimhneamh freisin nach mbaineann an inbhéartú bhfeidhm tar éis as agus than más rud é in abairtí den sórt sin mar atá forainm ábhar.

    You look much better than you did last time.

  5. Tar éis na frásaí go n-áiríonn an áit adverb.

    Má thosaíonn ár togra leis an abairt, briathra intransitive (sainráite gníomhartha nach bhfuil a théann díreach chuig an rud nó duine), mar riail, a chur ar siúl roimh an ábhar. Inbhéartú san fhoirm seo tá sé níos coitianta i scríbhinn, go háirithe i tuairiscí éagsúla.

    On the tree sat an unusual bird.

    Directly in front of them stood a beautiful castle.

    Along the road came a strange man.

    I gcaint chun an struchtúr gramadaí é freisin a úsáidtear go minic le focail here there agus le adverbs réamhfhoclacha up out back down off etc

    Here comes Meg!

    The door opened and out came Jack.

    Ach má chuma ar an ról atá ag an forainm a bheith in ord bhfocal díreach.

    Here he comes.

    Off we go!

  6. Na focail an údair i gcaint dhíreach.

    Go minic is féidir ceann a breathnú ar an úsáid a bhaint as inbhéartú i scéalta éagsúla nuair cosúil le briathra said asked suggested etc. dul tar éis an t-údar focail.

    Where is my car? asked John. ( asked John. ( OR … John asked)

    Ach má chuma ar an ról atá ag an forainm a bheith in ord bhfocal díreach.

    What do you want? she asked.

  7. Adverbs diúltacha.

    Ba chóir a thabhairt faoi deara go cé go bhfuil an úsáid a bhaint as an inbhéartú thuas i roinnt samplaí roghnach, i gcás an ghrúpa seo de adverbs, ní inversions féidir a bheith ina earráid tromchúiseach, mar sin beidh aird ar leith ar an bpointe seo. Ag cur seo i dtús an dobhriathar abairt, a bheith i gcónaí ar an eolas faoin sárú ar an ordú na bhfocal agus gramadach na huaire atá le húsáid.

    • Dobhriathra le cáithnín not

      Not until I see it with my own eyes will I believe him.

      Not since I met him was I so happy.

    • Tar éis grúpaí dobhriathra ama leis an bhfocal only

      Only after the phone call did she calm down

      Only later did I realize how important it had been.

      Only then did I remember that I had forgotten to feed my cat.

      Only when I have called him will I be able to think about anything else.

      Only in the last few weeks has he started to feel better.

      Tabhair faoi deara gur tar éis na frásaí not until only when agus only after go bhfuil an inbhéartú úsáidtear sa chuid is mó den phianbhreith, nach bhfuil an fo.

    • Tar éis adverbs léiríonn minicíocht gníomh hardly / barely / scarcely never before rarely seldom no sooner than

      Never have I seen such a beautiful child.

      Hardly ever does she come in time.

      Rarely do they fail to impress their neighbours.

    • Le habairtí mhaith at no time in no way on no account under / in no circumstances

      At no time did she complain about the situation.

      Under no circumstances are parents allowed to leave their children alone.

    • An focal little a bhfuil luach diúltach.

      Little do they know how lucky they are to have such a good friend. (= they don’t know) do they know how lucky they are to have such a good friend. (= they don’t know)

      Little did I realize that he would leave me one day. (= I didn’t realize) did I realize that he would leave me one day. (= I didn’t realize)

    • Is féidir leat úsáid a bhaint freisin ar an dearadh So + aidiacht i dtús na habairte, d’fhonn a béim a chur ar aidiacht.

      Déan comparáid idir:

      So successful was her song, that Ann very soon became a famous singer.

      Her song was so successful that Ann very soon became a famous singer.

      So dangerous did the weather become, that all the flights were canceled.

      The weather became so dangerous that all the flights were cancelled.

Tugann inbhéartú ár urlabhra ton níos foirmiúla, agus sin an fáth nuair a scríobh aistí éagsúla, an ngléas seo stíle mhealladh láithreach aird agus beidh meas ag iniúchadh. Ach mar aon le tógáil gramadaí eile, ná a úsáid nach bhfuil an inbhéartú thuiscint mar ba chóir dó sa bhfeiniméan casta. Sin é an fáth Tá súil agam go mbeidh airteagal seo mhúscailt i duit a mhian a fhiosrú a thuilleadh ar an ngné seo den ghramadach, agus beidh muid sásta cuidiú!

 

Gramadach

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